War, poverty, crime or unemployment does not offer single or simple explanation for their occurrence. But the new structure should be erected before social disorganisation can destroy the entire social fabric. In this way a particular situation does not become a social problem unless and until it is considered morally wrong by the majority or at least by a substantial minority. This disorderliness encourages social disorganization. Secondly, it is also false as an explanation of the continuity of order, for example, there may be widespread consensus in modern society on the desirability of higher living standards; but this is as likely to provoke conflict as to solve it. 95. Man today thinks in terms of self. Lombroso, the father of modern criminology, was of the view that the criminal behaviour is inborn and is primarily a biological phenomenon. However, his view finds few adherents today. Psychological factors contribute to disorganization in two ways:- Failure to maintain proper communication among fellow beings. Ogburn mentions another cause of social disorganisation and it is the lack of adaptation of man’s inherited nature to the environment of group and culture. Thus poverty may be due lo disease, a biological source; or to inadequate vocational preparation, which is a cultural source. When the Black Death visited England in 1348, it is said, it destroyed between a third and a half of the entire population in a little over a year. Firstly, that something should be done to change the situation which constitutes a problem; Secondly, that the existing social order will have to be changed to solve the problem; Thirdly, that the situation regarded a problem is undesirable but is not inevitable. Actually it may be due to a better knowledge of the divorce laws and altered attitudes towards marriage. Robert Parks and Ernest Burgess (1925), studied the longitudinal affects of Chicago while incorporating a social ecological perspective on the cities. A problem may be due to a combination of physical, biological, mental and cultural factors or any one of them. According to Ogburn, technological inventions, however, must not be considered the only cause of social disorganization, Ecological disturbances, i.e., disturbances in the relationship of man to his environment, including such natural phenomena as disease, earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions and various other catastrophic phenomena of nature, may also have a disorganizing effect on society. At the end, it may be said that social disorganisation is a process prevailing all over the world. G.R Madan has listed a few factors responsible for disorganization. This theory explains order in its various aspects and also explains the breakdown of social order and the occurrence of change. When the relations become disordered or disintegrated there is social disorganisation. Causes of Social Disorganization According to Maclver and Page five main factors such as psychological, biological, physical, technological and culture bring about social change. However, before we study social disorganisation, it would be fruitful to study social order as its study is helpful in understanding the nature of social disorganisation. Read this article to learn about the meaning, characteristics and causes of social disorganization! But if the theory states that some degree of consensus or commitment to common values is a necessary condition for social order, it is far more acceptable. No consideration is given to the power which some men have to determine or influence the manner in which others will take account of their own wishes. The people deplore the situation because they think that it can be reformed or eliminated. Among the symptoms of community disorganisation they included poverty, unemployment, crime and political corruption. There is a strong difference of opinion on a number of other issues like divorce, family planning, untouchability, love-marriage, joint family system, women education, widow remarriage, education etc. 17 Social Disorganization Learning Objectives Introduction Meaning of social disorganizations Nature of social disorganizations Causes of social disorganization Characteristics of social disorganization Social disorganization process Factors of social disorganizations Symptoms … - Selection from Sociology for nurses, 2nd Edition [Book] Even managing the affairs of an elderly, ailing relative can derail your own personal state of order. CAUSES OF SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION Psychological factors include the social processes like imitation, conflict, compitition, accommodation. Among the symptoms of personal disorganisation they included juvenile delinquency, various types of crime, insanity, drunkenness, suicide and prostitution. Found mostly in inner-city areas. Shaw and McKay sought to link life in disorganized, transitional urban areas to neighborhood crime rates. As a result young women are widowed. It may also be referred that some sociologists regard social disorganisation as a natural process than as a malady. They are left with none to support them. This theory stresses that order is based on some minimal consensus on certain values which are predominantly moral but may also be technical and aesthetic. People living under the same conditions do not necessarily behave in the same manner. According to Elliot and Merrill, “Without social values neither social organisation nor social disorganisation would exist.”. Unemployment may be due to social policy or lo physical heritage. According to Emile Durkheim, extreme division of labour is the cause of social disorganization. The theory of social disorganization states a person’s physical and social environments are primarily responsible for the behavioral choices that a person makes. Ogburn by analysing various social problems such as unemployment, poverty, crime, race conflict, family disorganisation and labour problems has shown that social disorganisation issues from the irregular changes of our culture. However, recent experiences with floods in India suggest that the influence of geographic factors on social organisation should not be under-estimated. In such conditions, social change may also take place. It is the purpose of Sociology to study such cases and discover the underlying causes. It may be said that these diseases are the price that men pay for social change. Percy S. Cohen refers to four main types of theories to explain the existence of social order. It states that social order results from the unintended consequences of many men separately pursuing their own interests; it is not true that men discover that order is in their collective interests and then establish it, rather they establish it unwittingly and discover later that it is in their interests. It may be, however, noted that no objective criteria for measuring the degree of disorganisation are available; whether a situation represents organisation or disorganisation is largely a matter of subjective judgment. Psychological factors contribute to disorganisation in two ways: (i) Fail­ure to maintain proper communication among fellow beings, and (ii) Failure to modify or change one’s attitudes in tune with the demands of time. (ii) Transfer of Functions from one Group to Another: In an organised society the functions of different groups are defined and predetermined. Durkheim rejected much of the arguments put forth by Comte. In society there are always individuals who violate social rules. Social disorganization, in this case, emphasizes the inability of "a community structure to realize common values of its residents and to keep the ef-fective social control" (Sampson and Groves 1989, 777). They no longer are treated as fixed and the people begin to choose from amongst the different role which causes disequilibrium. Social problems are the conditions threatening the well-being of society. Social organisation, Some Fundamental Concepts’, is an orderly relationship of parts. Richard C. Fuller and Richard R. Meyers define a social problem as a condition which is defined by a considerable number of persons as a deviation from some social norm which they cherish. The coercion theory can also explain disorder, conflict and change. In the same society too what is regarded a problem today may not be so regarded tomorrow because of change of conditions and attitudes. Untouchability became a social problem in India only after it was realized by the people that it constitutes a threat to the social unity and that something ought to be done to abolish it. Life is a process of continuous adjustment and readjustment. Social problems cause dissatisfaction, suffering and misery. Sampson (1986) indicates that social disorganization may have an effect on youth violence through its effects on family structures and stability. Elliot and Merrill called social organisation fundamentally a problem of consensus and when there is disagreement concerning mores and institutions, the seeds of social disorganisation have been sown. As discussed above a situation or condition may affect different people in a different way. Coercion theory has a few serious weaknesses, which are as follows: 1. There is continuity between Durkheim’s concern for organic solidarity in societies that are changing rapidly and the social disorganization approach of Shaw and McKay (1969). Changes in the ideal of marriage have served to vary its functions. Social system is the interdependence of functional social institutions. Thus it is apparent that the particularistic interpretation of social problems ascribing them to a single cause is wholly inadequate. In the 1942, two criminology researchers from the “Chicago School” of criminology, Clifford Shaw and Henry D. McKay developed social disorganization theory through their research. In the short run, the exercise of power may achieve some degree of social order but in the long run, it is bound to give rise to opposition or the use of violence to overthrow it. The Traditional social values in Indian society have undergone a major change. The differences between the Congress and Muslim League went on increasing, hatred between Hindus and Muslims went on aggravating and communal clashes took place from time to time. A crisis may become cumulative as a result of a series of events taking place from time to time, the partition of India was a cumulative crisis. They argued that social disorganization theory was aided in recent research by addressing it as more of a systemic model that included both intra- and extra-neighborhood factors. In sociology, the social disorganization theory is a theory developed by the Chicago School, related to ecological theories. It has also contributed to unemployment, crime, immorality, family disorganisation, urbanisation and its evils. Thus P.A. In actual fact no society is completely organised. Social problems are what people think they are and if situations are not defined as social problems by the people involved in them, they are not problems to those people, although they may be problems to philosophers or scientists or to outsiders. The origin of social problems lies not in a single cause but in many causes which cannot be put under a single theory. Although the theory cannot be accepted as such, when formulated more clearly and precisely it emphasizes the point that some of the causal processes of social phenomena are often circular. Disorganization can be caused by many factors. This theory has been strongly supported as an explanatory theory by Comte and Parsons. But his assertion was soon negated by various researches. The new values take time to adjust themselves in society. Some sociologists have made an attempt to classify social problems. When people are asked what causes crime and deviance, they tend to think in terms of individu-alistic causes of deviance. They argued, however, that substantive and methodological issues remained that needed to be overcome if social disorganization theory were to continue to advance. Every city in every state as well as around the world can fall prey to social disorganization. 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